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History Of Internet 1961 to 2001

      Glimpse On the History Of Internet 


  •                 First of all the Packet Switching(PS) Network was developed Package Switching is  the procedure of Digital Networking Communication which puts the transmitted data group into appropriate blocks which are packets.


  •                 In MIT Lincosh Lab using the packets switching technology two computers are communicated with each other.


  •                 Merit Network was discovered Planning of ARPANET started in this year.


  •                 The inauguration of Interface Message Processor (IMP)  specifications was done by Beranek and Newman , Inc(BBM).


  •                 ARPA(Advanced Research Projects Agency) came into existence in December. Four huge US universities were combined. It was designed for research , teaching and government organization .When the country was attacked by huge force which demolished the communication system it accomplished the task of providing communication link to the country.



  •                 Electronic Mail was introduced by Computer scientist Ray Tomlinson. To distinguish between  the mailer name and network name he used @ between the two.


  •                 University College of London combined with the Royal Radar Establishment(Norway) ARPANET and introduced the global networking.

                Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) was designed in this year.



  •                 FTP was established.
  •                 The       of Internet Service Provider (ISP) was done along with the introduction of commercial version of ARPANET  which is popularly known as Telnet.
  •                 A Protocol for Packet Network Interconnection was published by Vinton Cerf and Bob Kahn, known as the “Father of Computer”, which contained the detailed information about TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)


  •                 The first E-Mail was sent by Queen Elizabeth. UUCP (Unix-to-Unix Copy) developed AT&T Bell Labs which was distributed along with Unix.



  •                 The service of E-Mail was started. The facility of Electronic Mail was provided to 100s of inventors of Computer Science with the help of THEORYNET.


  •                 Computer Science Department researched the Computer Network and established in USA.
  •                 USENET was established using UUCP.USENET does the collection of News Group and Collection Group.
  •                 The Internet Configuration Control Board (ICCB) was established by  ARPA.


  •                 The Ethernet was introduced as Standard in this year.


  •             National Science Foundation (NSF) helped in the establishment of Computer Science Network (CSNET), with the help of which the Network service was provided computer scientists of universities.


  •                 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP) were made standard Internet Protocol.


  •                 ARPANET was divided into ARPANET and MILNET.Among the 113 nodes 68 nodes were allotted to MILNET.
  •                 Internet Activities Board(IAB)  was established in place of ICCB.
  •                 EARN (European  Academic and Research Network) was established in this year.


  •                 The use of CyberSpace  for the first time was done by the writer of  ‘Neuromancer’  William Gibson. The establishment of extensions such as .edu, .mil, .org, .net and .int for the websitr was done by Domain Name System(DNS), due to which appropriate informtion about the network address can be collected.It was easy to remember  the domain name for a website rather than the previously mentioned website.
  •                 JUNET (Japan Unix Network) was established with the help of UUCP .
  •                 The limited new groups were introduced on USENET.


  •                 Symbolics.com which was prepared for Symbolics Computer Co-orporation was the first registered domain.
  •                 Whole Earth Lectronic Link (WELL) was started in this year.


  •                 NSFNET was made online (Backbone Speed  56kbps).
  •                 5 Super-Computing Centre were established by NSF through which all people are provided with higher computing skills. (JVNC@princeton  , PCS@pittsburgh , SDSC@UCSD , NCSA@UIUC , Theory Center@Cornell).
  •                 Network News Transfer Protocol(NNTP) was designed to increase the performance of Usenet News on TCP/IP.


  •                 The number of hosts increased to more than 20,000 on internet.Cisco sent their first router .Router gives the user the permission for connection through broadband for devices such as Desktop PC , Laptop , Smartphone , MP3 Player , Tablet or Netbook.
  •                 The Internet Service Provider UUNET was discovered.


  •                 NSFNET (National Science Foundation Network) which was the backbone was upgraded by T1(1.544 Mbps).
  •                 OSI reference model was released.
  •                 Due to virus the 10% internet server had to be shut down. The Internet Relay Chat (IRC) was developed by Jarkko Oikarinen.
  •                 The countries like Canada , Denmark , France , Iceland  , Norway , Sweden connecetd themselves to NSFNET.


  •                 world.std.com  made Internet the first commercial provider for accessing Dail-Up .
  •                 The use  of Border Gateway Protocol(BGP) was started .
  • Tim Berners-Lee ,the scientist of CERN  (European Laboratory for Particle Physics ) developed the technique for distributing the information on internet which is known as World Wide Web.


  •                 Tim Berners-Lee developed  Hyper Text Markup Language(HTML).ARANET became less active for users.
  •                 The nonprofit organization Advanced Network and Service(ANS)  of  USA  was formed.
  •                 Archie tool was recognized as Search Engine tool which helped people to find their files.


  •                 CERN presented World Wide Web to public.
  •                 NSFNET was upgraded to Backbone T3(44.736 Mbps).
  •                 The Gopher Protocol was designed.


  • First audio and video were distributed on Internet . The word ‘Surfing the Internet’ became quite popular.
  • The Internet Society (ISOC) was established.
  •  The numbers of hosts increased to almost 1,000,000.
  • The World-Bank came online.
  • The countries like Antarctica, Cameroon, Cyprus, Ecuador, estonia, Kuwait, Latvia, Luxembourg, Malaysia,  Slovenia, Thailand, Venezuela were connected with NSFNET.
  • Internet Hunt was started by Rick Gates.


  • The U.S. National Science Foundation, after a competitive bidding process in 1992, created the InterNIC to manage the allocations of addresses and management of the address databases, and awarded the contract to three organizations. Registration Services would be provided by Network Solutions; Directory and Database Services would be provided by AT&T; and Information Services would be provided by General Atomics.
  • Lycos, was created in 1993 as a university project, and was the first to achieve commercial success.


  • The People’s Republic of China (PRC) went on to make its first global Internet connection in 1994, between the Beijing Electron-Spectrometer Collaboration and Stanford University's Linear Accelerator Center.
  • The first full-text Web search engine was WebCrawler in 1994.


  • NSFNET was decommissioned in 1995


  •             The first mobile phone with Internet connectivity was the Nokia 9000 Communicator, launched in Finland in 1996.


  •                 American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIC) by the direction of Natural Science Foundation was established in December 1994 and it became the Third Regional Internet Registry.


  •                 NTT DoCoMo in Japan launched the first mobile Internet service, i-mode, in 1999 and this is considered the birth of the mobile phone Internet services.


  •             The Dot-Cum bubble burst in this year.


  •             The Top Level domain names were activated.

Writer : Vidhi Kotecha

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